If the maps in your Bible shows Phoenicia it would be along the cost of the eastern Mediterranean Sea north of Israel. Phoenicia is shown in green on this map and is part of present day Lebanon. (The name Lebanon comes from the Phoenician word meaning "white," likely referring to the snow capped mountains.) The major Phoenician cities that are mentioned in the Bible are Tyre, Sidon, Byblos, and Arvad (sometimes spelled Arwad). Phoenicia was less a county than a collection of independent, rival city-states. Their primary interest was in trade and were famous as maritime traders who dominated Mediterranean trade, indeed they were likely the first of the great Mediterranean traders, before the Greeks, Romans and Muslims. What the Phoenicians actually called themselves is unknown but many think that they called themselves Canaanite. Canaanite is a designation from which many nations would emerge. The name Phoenician, that we used to describe them today, was given to them by the Greeks. This exonym is evidently from a word borrowed into Greek from Egyptian meaning carpenter or woodcutter. (The Phoenicians were trading with Egypt before the Greeks.) The Greek word is φοῖνιξ (phoînix), which meant variably "Phoenician person," "Tyrian purple, crimson" or "date palm." Homer used it with each of these meanings. The title is thought to come from their production of a highly prized purple dye that they made from the shells a Murex snail. Some say that they may have had red hair, they clearly made purple dye and were skilled craftsman as we will see. I should also note that some think that the name is derived from the genuinely Greek adjective φοινός (phoinós, "blood-red").

Phoenicia map-enOn the map we see that Phoenicia was a narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean coast and the mountains of Lebanon. Trapped between the sea and the mountains, there was little land for agriculture so the Phoenicians turned to the sea for fishing and trading. Those who stayed ashore were known to be skilled craftsman, exploiting the famed cedars of Lebanon. Their focus on trade and craftsmanship not empires and conquest left them vulnerable to domination by other powers, so, according to most, they did not become a regional political power, at least not by conquest.

Evidence of human activity around what became the city Byblos date from 7000 BC, the city Itself seems to have been a flourishing center from at least the third millennium BC. Other Phoenician cities emerged as urban entities around 1500 BC, this is roughly the time of Moses. Despite the Phoenicians contribution to written language, that we will look at below, they left little in written form to tell their story. Their script was easy to write on Papyrus and as they lived in a humid coastal area and focused on trade little of that has come down to us. (Unlike Cuneiform that was written on clay tablets, or inscriptions chiseled into walls.) There are few inscriptions in Phoenician that have been discovered. Coins and pottery also bear their marks. They had no empire or great conquer who built monuments to himself.

Latin authors and Church Fathers report that they had an extensive literature including treatises on agriculture, navigation, along with poems and tales of the sea. Both Phoenicia itself and the colony of Carthage had extensive libraries. The works of Sanchuniathon, a Phoenician author of of grammatical, lexical and historical works survive only in a paraphrase in Greek by Philo of Byblos, a Greek writer c. 100 BC. Menander of Ephesus was an historian whose lost work on the history of Tyre was used by Josephus, the Jewish/Roman historian, who also alludes to the Phoenician or Tyrian chronicles that he had consulted to write his historical works. Herodotus also mentioned the existence of books from Byblos and a History of Tyre preserved in the temple of Hercules-Melqart in Tyre. (Hercules is the Roman equivalent of the Greek divine hero Heracles, son of Jupiter and the mortal Alcmena. Melqart was the tutelary god of the Phoenician city-state of Tyre, he may have been a legendary person more than a god. The Greeks identified Melqart with Heracles.)

There is much we have as echos but as an example of Phoenician literature and culture we can consider the inscription from the sarcophagus of king Eshmunazar II (c. 5th century BC) which reads in part: 

In the month of Bul, in the fourteenth year of the reign of King ESHMUNAZAR, King of the two Sidons, son of King TABNIT, King of the two Sidons, King ESHMUNAZAR, King of the two Sidons, said as follows-

I am carried away, the time of my non-existence has come, my spirit has disappeared, like the day, from whence I am silent, since which I became mute.

And I am lying in this coffin, and in this tomb, in the place which I have built.

O thou remember this- "May no king or no man open my funeral couch, and may they not seek after treasures, for no one has hidden treasures here, nor move the coffin out of my funeral couch, nor molest me in this funeral bed, by putting another tomb over it.

Whatever a man may tell thee, do not listen to him-

For the punishment shall be – ... they shall have no funeral couch with the Rephaïm [departed spirits], nor shall be buried in graves, nor shall there be any son or offspring to succeed to them, and the sacred gods shall inflict extirpation on them.

... [W]hoever would be King hereafter, inspire those over whom thou wilt reign, that they may exterminate the members of the royalty who will open the covering of this couch, or who will take away this coffin, and (exterminate) also the offspring of this royal race, or of these men of the crowd. There shall be to them no root below, nor fruit above, nor living form under the sun.

For graced by the gods, I am carried away, the time of my non-existence has come, my spirit has disappeared, like the day, from whence I am silent, since which I became mute.

For I, ESHUNAZAR, King of the two Sidons, son of King TABNIT, King of the two Sidons (who was), the grandson of King ESMUNAZAR, King of the two Sidons,

And my mother AMASTARTE, the Priestess of ASTARTE, our mistress, the Queen, the daughter of King ESMUNAZAR, King of the two Sidons –

It is we who have built the temple of the gods, and the temple of ASTAROTH, on the seaside Sidon, and have placed there the image of the ASTAROTH, as we are sanctifiers (of the gods).

And it is we who have built the temple of ESMUN, and the sanctuary of the purpleshells River on the mountain, and have placed there his image, as we are sanctifiers (of the gods).

And it is we who have built the temples of the gods of the two Sidons, in the seaside Sidon, tile temple of BAAL-SIDON and the temple of ASTARTE who bears the name of this BAAL.

May in future the Lords of the Kings give us Dora and Japhia, the fertile corn-lands, which are in tile plain of Saron, and may they annex it to the boundary of the land, that it may belong to the two Sidons for ever.

O thou, remember this- May no royal race and no man open my covering, nor deface (the inscriptions of) my covering, nor molest me in this funeral bed, nor carry away the coffin, where I repose. Otherwise, the sacred gods shall inflict extirpation on them and shall exterminate this royal race and this man of the crowd and their offspring for ever.

http://cojs.org/sarcophagus_of_king_eshmunazar-_5th_century_bce/ 5/1/23
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcophagus_of_Eshmunazar_II#:~:text=The%20sarcophagus%20of%20Eshmunazar%20II,Sidon%20in%20modern%2Dday%20Lebanon. 5/1/23

The sarcophagus in of an Egyptian-style likely made in Egypt for members of the Ancient Egyptian elite. Trade with Egypt transported it to Sidon. From this inscription we see that even this king was humble and did not think of himself as a god nor did he try to take great treasure with him as an Egyptian may have done. For himself he has built the tomb but for the gods he has built a temple.

As we said human activity in the area we would call Phoenicia is dated from 7000 BC. That sort of observation does not indicate the formation of a society at would produce a history of literature of its own. We do know that people were living there and they may well have become the Phoenicians. Trade, efficient agriculture and economic specialization are what is necessary for cities to flourish. These developed around 4000 BC, along with trade with Egypt. Trade of this sort effects both parties as we see for the sarcophagus above. Trading beyond the local area also can invite problems as the Phoenicians discovered.

Their neighbors to the East, the Amorites, conquered Byblos around 2100 BC. They may actually been the rulers of Egypt at the time as some of the Pharaohs of the Fourteenth Dynasty of Egypt have Amorite names. Egyptian influence began to decline around 1200 BC, and the cities were freed from foreign domination. The ultimate collapse of Egyptian power in the region occurred about 1175 BC at the hands of the mysterious Sea Peoples, as they are identified in Egyptian writings. There is little that is actually known about them. The best known of them are likely the Philistines. In Bible time the Philistines lived substantially south of Phoenicia but near to Egypt. The sea people were more a problem to the Egyptians than for the Phoenicians. It is not clear where these folks came from, or even if the Philistines were a remnant of these sea people. Some even say the Phoenicians were part of a "Sea People" coalition.

When the Israelites invaded and settled in southern Canaan beginning about 1250 BC, they pushed other Canaanite people into the area that we would call Phoenicia. This is also the time of what is called "The Late Bronze age collapse," where, for reasons not yet fully understood, there were massive disruptions in civilizations throughout the region but it appears to have had a minimal effect upon the Phoenician coastal centers. There is therefore much continuity in Phoenician traditions from the Late Bronze Age until the Greeks arrived ushering in the Hellenistic period around 300 BC.

By the late eighth century BC, the Phoenicians, alongside the Greeks, had founded trading posts around the entire Mediterranean and excavations of many of these centers have added significantly to our understanding of Phoenician culture. Sea traders from Phoenicia and Carthage (a Phoenician colony traditionally thought to have been founded in 814 BC) even ventured beyond the Strait of Gibraltar as far as Britain in search of tin. They also left their mark there, it is thought that the Phoenicians may have settled in Britain, and there is some evidence to support this. Phoenician pottery and other artifacts have been found in Wales, and the place names of some Welsh towns and villages appear to be of Phoenician origin. With some saying that they were the forerunners of the Scotts. However, much of our knowledge about the Phoenicians during the Iron Age (circa 1200–500 BC) and later is dependent on the Hebrew Bible (see Tyre and Sidon), Assyrian records, and later Greek and Latin authors. For example, according to the Greek historian Herodotus, Phoenician sailors, at the request of the pharaoh Necho II (ruled circa 610–595 BC), circumnavigated Africa.

The main natural resources of the Phoenician cities in the eastern Mediterranean were the prized cedars of Lebanon and murex shells used to make the purple dye. Phoenician artisans were skilled in wood, ivory, and metalworking, as well as textile production. Homer's Iliad (circa 8 century BC) describes a prize at the funeral games of Patroklos as a mixing bowl of chased silver—"a masterpiece of Sidonian craftsmanship" (Book 13). It also mentions that the embroidered robes of Priam of Troy's wife, Hecabe, were "the work of Sidonian women" (Book 6). Phoenician art is in fact an amalgam of many different cultural elements—Aegean, northern Syrian, Cypriot, Assyrian, and Egyptian. This is not surprising for a trading people. The Egyptian influence is often especially prominent in the art but was constantly evolving as the political and economic relations between Egypt and the Phoenician cities fluctuated. The robes for the Priests described in II Chronicles were likely from Sidon. Material for the house where David lived (II Samuel 5.11-12) and the palace Solomon built (I Kings 7) came from Lebanon. Master craftsman were sent by Hiram, king of Tyre, to build and embellish the temple that Solomon built in Jerusalem (I Kings 6).  

Perhaps the most significant contribution of the Phoenicians was an alphabetic writing system that became the root of the Western alphabets especially after the Greeks adopted it. Rather than relying on ideograms, symbols that represent a word or phrase, the Phoenicians started to use the symbols to represent sounds. In my youth I learned that we call these distinct units of sound phonemes in a nod to the Phoenicians. This does not actually seem to be the case as from Ancient Greek we have φωνή (phōnḗ) meaning voice or sound. Still lessons from grammar school die hard, or perhaps, the consensus of those who-claim-to-know may well have changed. The point being that the Phoenicians spread their writing system across their world where it was adopted by the Greeks and subsequently by the Romans.

I heard a guy on the radio say that if you teach students the pictures that are associated with the ancient Hebrew script they are actually able to understand much of the meaning of Hebrew from the pictures that are now represented by letters. This sort of idea shows how the Egyptian Hieroglyphs, which represent a foundation to even the table below became the phonetic alphabet we use today. (We note that the Chinese did not make this sort of a shift although there are aspects of their characters that give a clue to the pronunciation of the word the symbols represent.*) The consonant sound that is associated with each letter are associated with the initial sound of the word represented. This sort of thing is not portable across languages which is why abstract symbols that are easy to write won out over the more complicated pictures.

The table below is based one from wikipedia and mine relies on external links for many letters so it may get scrambled over time and the wikipedia link may be more reliable. The table is meant to show the evolution or influences of the Phoenician alphabet on others. I have abridged the original table leaving only Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic and Ge'ez which are Semitic languages where it would not be surprising to find that they have aspects of their writing systems in common; even a common root. (Some say that there various Semitic languages of ancient times were mutually intelligible.) Ge'ez is a language of Ethiopian Christianity and thought to be a predecessor to Amharic, the current language of Ethiopia. Greek, Latin, Cyrillic and Devanagari scripts are used for Indo-European languages so Phoenician influence would be more surprising if it were not for trade. The Greeks added vowels, vowels being more important to Greek, to the alphabet which were lacking in the more guttural Phoenician, and many other ancient writing systems. Indeed the pointing of vowel sounds used in modern Hebrew was added by Masoretes around the 5 century. Homer (c. 850 BC) used a Greek alphabet adapted from the Phoenicians. Similarly Latin seems not to have gone through an idiographic stage, with the Roman alphabet adapted largely from the Greek. The Roman Empire carried the Latin alphabet we use today to Europe.

Cyrillic is the alphabet that is used for Russian and other Eastern European (Slavic) languages. It is the descendant of the Glagolitic script that was developed by Saints Cyril and Methodius (c. 850), Byzantine Christian missionaries and Bible translators. They developed the writing system that became Old Church Slavonic. It was based in large part on the Greek. In developing this system they gave a written language to many of the central European peoples who did not have one before. (Something Christian missionaries continue to do.) Cyrillic is a revision of that script and named in honor of Saint Cyril. As an aside, the Orthodox missionaries were more successful in these territories than the Romans because they used the local vernacular language for their liturgy and Bible translation efforts rather than insisting on Latin as the Roman Church did.

I left the Devanagari script in the table in deference to Gulab Singh who was one of my Hindi instructors when I was in Peace Corps. He pointed out that the "script," which we were not learning, had 14 vowels and 33 consonants and we drilled for what seemed like an eternity on the various vowel sounds so that we could get the "sound" of the language. He was right, of course, and learning to hear the differences between vowel sounds was critical in distinguishing words. I failed miserably at learning to speak Hindi, but I did learn to understand a bit. The Devanagari script has been in regular use since the 7th century. It is thought to be a descendant of Brahmi, a writing system of ancient South Asia that appeared as a fully developed script in the third century BC. There are those who think that this script had Semitic roots or influence. (The Phoenicians did manage to trade with Arabia and India via the Red Sea.)

The Proto-Sinaitic alphabet in the table is actually thought to be a precursor to the Phoenician alphabet and is related to Egyptian writing. Time moves from left to right (except where it doesn't) showing the evolution of the letter largely keeping the same sound. That was something of a surprise to me when trying to learn Greek just how familiar the letter sounds were, as an engineer I already knew the alphabet. We also see in moving across the table the letters getting more abstracted.


OriginPhoenicianNameMeaningCorresponding letter in
Proto-semiticA-01.svg Aleph ʾālep ox, head of cattle א ܐ ء Αα Aa Аа अ /a/
Proto-semiticB-01.svg Beth bēt house ב ܒ Ββ Bb Бб, Вв ब /b/
Proto-semiticG-01.svg Gimel gīml throwing stick (or camel) ג ܓ Γγ CcGg Гг, Ґґ ग /g/
Proto-semiticD-01.svg Proto-semiticD-02.svg Daleth dālet door (or fish) ד ܕ دذ Δδ Dd Д д ध /dʰ/
Proto-semiticE-01.svg He he window (or jubilation) ה ܗ ه Ε ε Ee Ее, Єє, Ээ ह /ɦ/
Proto-semiticW-01.svg Waw wāw hook ו ܘ (Ϝ ϝ ), Υυ FfUuVvWwYy Ѵѵ, Уу, Ўў व /v/
Proto-semiticZ-01.svg Zayin zayin weapon (or manacle) ז ܙ Ζζ Zz Зз ज /dʒ/
Proto-semiticH-01.svg Heth ḥēt courtyard/wall (?) ח ܚ حخ Η, η Hh Ии, Йй घ /gʰ/
Proto-semiticTet-01 Teth ṭēt wheel ט ܛ طظ Θθ   Ѳѳ थ /tʰ/
Proto-semiticI-01Proto-semiticI-02.svg Yodh yod arm, hand י ܝ ي Ιι ΙiJj Іі, Її, Јј य /j/
Proto-semiticK-01.svg Kaph kāp palm of a hand כך ܟ Κκ Kk Кк क /k/
Proto-semiticL-01.svg Lamedh lāmed goad ל ܠ Λλ Ll Лл ल /l/
Proto-semiticM-01.svg Mem mēm water מם ܡ Μμ Mm Мм म /m/
Proto-semiticN-01.svg Nun nūn serpent (or fish) נן ܢ Νν Nn Нн न /n/
Proto-semiticX-01Proto-semiticX-02 Samekh śāmek pillar(?) ס ܣ ܤ   Ξξ   Ѯѯ ष /ʂ/
Proto-semiticO-01 Ayin ʿayin eye ע ܥ عغ Οο, Ωω Oo Оо, Ѡѡ ए /e/
Proto-semiticP-01.svg Pe mouth (or corner) פף ܦ ف ፐ, ፈ Ππ Pp Пп प /p/
Proto-semiticTsade-01Proto-semiticTsade-02 Sadek ṣādē papyrus plant/fish hook? צץ ܨ صض , ጰ, ፀ (Ϻϻ)     च /tʃ/
Proto-semiticQ-01.svg Qoph qōp needle eye ק ܩ (Ϙϙ), Φφ Qq Ҁҁ, Фф ख /kʰ/
Proto-semiticR-01.svg Res rēs, reš head ר ܪ Ρρ Rr Рр र /r/
Proto-semiticS-01.svg Sin šīn tooth (or sun) ש ܫ شس Σσς Ss Сс, Шш, Щщ श /ɕ/
Proto-semiticT-01.svg Taw tāw mark ת ܬ تث Ττ Tt Тт त /t/


 This Phonecian timeline is adapted and expanded from the references below.  

Date Event
7000 BC First human settlement at the site which would become Byblos.
c. 4000 BC Founding of the city of Sidon.
c. 4000 – 3000 BC First trade contact between Byblos and Egypt.
2900 BC The Egyptian king Sneferu, the founding pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, sends a maritime expedition to Phoenicia in search of cedar wood.
c. 2700 BC The Temple of The Lady of Byblos is constructed. Baalat Gebal, the Phoenician name translates literally to "Lady of Byblos" she was the tutelary goddess of the city of Byblos. Not surprisningly she is associated with commerce. She was identified with Hathor or Isis by the Egyptians, and with Aphrodite by the Greeks. She has also been identified as a local form of Asherah, from the ancient Canaanite (Semitic) religion.
2750 BC Traditional date for the founding of Tyre.
c. 2500 BC Regular trade links are established between Egypt and Phoenicia.
2100 BC The conquest of Byblos by the Amorites.
c. 1800 BC Emergence of the alphabetic script known as 'proto-Canaanite.'
c. 1500 BC The Phoenicians take the first steps towards developing a phonetic alphabet. (Woolmer)
Egyptian Period
1550-1077 BC Egyptian Domination (Egyptian New Kingdom)
1479–1425 BC The reign of Thutmosis III, the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, who becomes the first Egyptian pharaoh to fully subjugate the Phoenician cities and extract tribute from them.
c. 1332–1292 BC The Amarna Dynasty rules in Egypt. The Amarna Period was an era of Egyptian history during the later half of the Eighteenth Dynasty when the royal residence of the pharaoh and his queen was shifted to Akhetaten in what is now Amarna.
1250-1150 Destruction of many Canaanite towns hints at a possible invasion of the Israelites into Canaan. This is the so called late bronze age colaps where there was a major disruption in the civilizations of the middle east.
c. 1200 BC Sea Peoples, invade the Levant. (Their origin and identity has been suggested (and debated) to be Etruscan/Trojan to Italian, Philistine, Mycenaen and even Minoan but, as no accounts discovered thus far shed any more light on the question than what is presently known, any such claims must remain mere conjecture. https://www.worldhistory.org/Sea_Peoples/ 5/1/23)
c. 1200–800 BC First wave of Phoenician migration during which small settlements and trading posts are established throughout the Mediterranean.
c. 1200 BC Tyre and Sidon replace Byblos as the most influential Phoenician cities. Outbreak of the Trojan War.
Assyrian Period
1115–1076 BC Reign of Tiglath-Pilesar I of Assyria who conquers Phoenicia and incorporates it into the Assyrian Empire.
c. 1110 BC Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Gades (Cadiz, a port city and port in southwestern Spain.).
c. 1101 BC Traditional founding date for the Phoenician colony of Utica, Tunisia by Sidon (or Tyre).
1100 BC Phoenician mariners begin to navigate by use of the Pole Star.
c. 1056 BC The Phoenician cities regain their independence as the Assyrian Empire collapses.
1000 BC Death of Ahriam of Byblos, whose sarcophagus bears the oldest inscription written using the Phoenician alphabet.
1000 - 586 BC Kingdom of Israel and Judah
c. 969–939 BC Hiram ascends to the throne of Tyre (reigns until 936) and forms a close bond of friendship with the Israelite kings David and Solomon.
Neo-Assyrian domination
c. 876–854 BC Ashurbanipal II, king of Assyria from 883 to 859 BC, demands tribute from the Phoenician cities and asserts Assyrian dominance over the region. During his reign the Phoenician cities are eventually incorporated into the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
c. 860 BC Jezebel, a princess of Tyre, marries Ahab, King of Israel. (I Kings 16.31)
c. 830 BC The city of Kition is founded in Cyprus. (The city-kingdom was originally established in the 13th century BC by Greek (Achaean) settlers, after the Trojan war.)
820-774 BC Pygmalion rules as king of Tyre. During Pygmalion's reign, Tyre built new colonies including Kition on Cyprus, Sardinia, and Carthage.
814 BC Traditional date for the founding of Carthage in Tunisia. Dido, also known as Elissa, is, according to legond, the founder and first queen of the Phoenician city-state of Carthage, in 814 BC. In most accounts, she was the queen of the Phoenician city-state of Tyre who fled tyranny to found her own city in northwest Africa. She is Known only through ancient Greek and Roman sources. 
c. 800–600 BC Second wave of Phoenician migration during which trading-posts are converted into colonies and a number of new, larger settlements are founded.
c. 800–750 BC The Phoenicians begin to settle in Sicily.
c. 770–760 BC The city of Gadir (Cádiz) is founded in Spain. Located on the Atlantic coast. Originally a small island, long since much enlarged by silting and joined to the mainland by a bridge, and a larger long island now the peninsula. Gadir was founded by Phoenicians from Tyre. 
c. 750 BC The city of Motya is founded on San Pantaleo Island off the west coast of Sicily,
727 BC King Luli of Tyre attempts to break free of Assyrian rule but is quickly defeated.
701 BC Following a second unsuccessful rebellion, King Luli fled to Cyprus where he eventually dies in exile.
c. 700 BC Corinthians adopt the trireme, a war ship with 3 banks of ores and a bronze-sheathed ram on the prow to sink an enemy ship. This bit of Phoenician technonogy allowed Athens to build its maritime empire and dominate the Aegean in the 5th century BC. (Corinth was a Greek city-state.)
678–675 BC Sidon rebels against Assyrian rule and is completely destroyed following a three-year siege.
636 BC The Phoenicians regain their independence following the collapse of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.
c. 600 BC The Phoenicians undertake the first circum-navigation of Africa. 
Babylonian Period
588–587 BC Destruction of Tyre by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar following a 13-year siege. Sidon replaces Tyre as the most influential Phoenician city.
528 BC The Phoenician cities willingly accept their absorption into the Persian Empire following the defeat of Babylon, the Assyrian capital.
c. 525 BC King Eshmunazar, King of Sidon
Greek Period
333 BC Alexander the Great sacks Sidon.
332 BC Alexander the Great besieges and conquers Tyre.
c. 301–83 BC After Alexander's death, control of Phoenicia passes back and forth between the Seleucid and Egyptian (Ptolemaic) empires.
Roman Period
c. 27 BC The Roman conquest of the Greeks was complete when Augustus Caesar made the entire Greek peninsula the province of Achaea.
64 BC The Roman general Pompey subdues the last remains of the Seleucid Empire and assimilates Phoenicia into the Roman province of Syria.


Woolmer, Mark; A Short History of the Phoenicians: https://www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/a-short-history-of-the-phoenicians/timeline?from=search 4/10/23

Phoenicia Timeline: https://www.worldhistory.org/timeline/phoenicia/ 4/10/23

Department of Ancient Near Eastern Art. "The Phoenicians (1500–300 B.C.)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/phoe/hd_phoe.htm  (October 2004) 4/10/23

Phoenician alphabet: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet 4/22/23

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-p8OZz5KJoo 4/22/23

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician%E2%80%93Punic_literature 5/4/23

Smith, Patricia, The Phoenicians: A Maritime People Who Established An Empire: https://www.historic-cornwall.org.uk/the-phoenicians-a-maritime-people-who-established-an-empire/#:~:text=The%20Phoenician%20presence%20in%20Britain,alphabet%2C%20to%20the%20British%20Isles. 5/14/23

* I observed a conversation between Doctors Hwang and Wang, two of my professors who were of Chinese origin. They were drawing Chinese characters on the board and referring to them as this one and that one but comparing the pronunciations. There were words associated with each of the characters but no names. When I asked about it they basically said "you don't want to know." Dr. Wang was my major professor in Aquaculture and Dr. Hwang specialized in waste water processing. Their point being we were not studying languages.